The Technology for the Hydrogen Combustion Engine does already exist as demonstrated by this Hydrogen 7 series Hydrogen powered combustion engine vehicle!
Detailed proposal for retrofit hydrogen gas combustion engine conversion for older current vehicles and/ or new manufacture (theoretical)
Normal petrol car :
hydrogen gas conversion type kit fitted to petrol vehicle, using current technology available in new and old manufacture Gas fuel dependent cars (that rely on hydrogen pumped to the reservoir tank from a hydrogen filling station outlet). Such as LPG Gas Converted vehicles and or the recent prototype Hydrogen ‘Pulse R’ combustion engine unveiled by ‘Oaktec’ 7th November 2019 (University of Lancaster)
Producing the Hydrogen at a pump (Electrolysis)
See http://www.nwhydrogenalliance.co.uk/blog-deploying-hydrogen-as-a-transport-fuel-in- the-north-west-mark-griffin-at-boc/ ‘Hydrogen is produced at the station via electrolysis of water utilizing electricity generated from renewable sources. It is then stored as a compressed gas until being dispensed into vehicles, much like refueling a petrol or diesel vehicle. Refueling takes less than 10 minutes for a bus (and less than 5 minutes for a car), again comparable to conventional diesel or petrol. Bus and van hydrogen refueling is up to 350 bar and for cars it’s 700 bar.’ Although this only refers to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric vehicles.
Producing Hydrogen (H2) on board for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies and or Combustion Engines such as the ‘Oaktec Pulse R engine’
In this concept however the hydrogen would be produced under the hood using some adaptation of new and emerging technologies based around the discovery in 2017 of Nanogalvanic alloys by Scott Grendahl and his team at Maryland Army Research Labs See https://www.newscientist.com/article/2142693-nano-aluminium-offers-fuel-cells-on-demand-just- add-water/ This discovery in 2017 (Patent applied for) is a momentous leap forward in clean energy production, being a spontaneous room temperature reaction not requiring any other catalyst or energy source with which to extract Hydrogen from H2O. This reaction becomes 100% efficient within 3 minutes and requires no external electrical power to react as used to be the case with older scientific techniques such as Electrolysis. Rather this reaction utilizes the natural scientific process of hydrolysis to enable the reaction. The new alloy circumvents the usual scientific problem of oxidization of Aluminium in water (which prevents the hydrolysis reaction from continuing) by allowing in micron granular form for the aluminium alloy to continually expose new metal surfacing to the water and thus a continual spontaneous hydrolysis hydrogen production reaction takes place! The implications of this discovery are only now being fully realized with work with new and emerging technologies! So theoretically I would propose (initially with Hydrogen Fuel Cell driven technologies such as Hybrid Electrical vehicles) that technologies for containing and directing the flow of the hydrogen gas from Nanogalvanic alloy reactions to portable storage tanks or directly to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell itself could and would in the future enable on board Hydrogen Production Units to be installed in current Hybrid (Hydrogen Fuel Cell) Electric Car Technologies! Imagine filling up your car with H2O instead of petrol, Adding Nanogalvanic alloy to the Hydrolysis based Hydrogen Gas production unit and driving off into the sunset in your Hybrid Electric Vehicle! This, since Scott Grendahls discovery, is now all absolutely theoretically possible I would argue. This is incredible news for the future of clean energy transportation technologies around the world! It is also incredible news for Clean energy production in general terms also as it negates the need for expensive and highly costly Electrolysis based production and storage facilities rather localized and theoretically portable Hydrogen Gas Production units could in theory be set up anywhere that there is access to aluminium (which is recyclable) and water. So it would also be theoretically possible to imagine a Vehicle filling station having its own Nanogalvanic alloy Hydrogen production facility setup on site whilst also selling components such as water and Nanogalvanic alloy for theoretical on board Hydrogen production units! This future momentous technological shift is likely to totally revolutionize global energy transportation and production in ways not seen since the emergence of the Industrial Revolution!
Combustion Engine Specific
If the possible future Nanogalvanic alloy production unit technologies are somehow combined with the compression and hydrogen storage aspects of technologies from companies such as H2 Planet, then hopefully Combustion engines such as the Oaktec Pulse R engine are also in for a surprise with the emergence of the new technologies surrounding Scott Grendahls discovery.
From an adapted Electrolysis Hydrogen production unit such as the ‘Hy PEM XP 3300 Rack’ electrolysis and associated storage units See https://www.h2planet.eu/en/detail/hy_pem_xp_3300_rack_2 the Hydrogen produced within a combustion engines on board Nanogalvanic alloy H2 production unit would I assume need to be compressed by a 12v or adapted 24 volt type compressor, to 700bar (see quote above). The then compressed hydrogen gas would need to be fed to a reservoir tank akin to the Toyota Mirai range Hydrogen gas storage tanks (Proven Technology) for safety reasons. See https://www.toyota.co.uk/new-cars/new-mirai/the-facts However the H2 Planet systems such as the ‘Hy PEM XP 3300 Rack’ systems amongst others have compressors built in that currently are capable of compressing the 99.9999 % pure hydrogen produced by the units production from 16 BAR to 350 BAR depending on the model.
The highly compressed gas would then theoretically drive the combustion engines on retrofitted cars using remapped gas jets to suit each engines individual characteristics and proven technology outlined above as in hydrogen dependent cars such as the ‘Oaktec’, (Pulse R engine), driven Hydrogen powered vehicle. (See Link above).
The vehicles electrical components (Retrofitting)
Normal Combustion engine electrical components would be preserved however, dependent on the development of a suitable 12 volt or adapted 24-volt compressor system to compress the gas and the powering of the hydrogen production unit direct current requirements, the electrical components may need to be adapted to produce more ampere / power output such as the Alternator / Battery and Ancillaries, dependent on voltage selection type (12 / 24 volt) and Starter Motor. The Developed compressor must be able to be concept proven technology and reliable enough to last normal operational duration without overheating or breaking down.
Water Tank – The old fuel tank could be replaced with a duplicate polypropylene tank to prevent contamination and or corrosion in which the distilled water could be held to be pumped to the Hydrogen Fuel Production Unit upon normal operation of the system.
I believe the proven technologies for this type of retrofitting conversion are available currently as proven technologies as outlined above such as the Oaktec Pulse R engine technologies in current prototype production combined with the adaptation and development of new hydrogen fuel production and generation units based around Nanogalvanic alloy hydrolysis reactions based on Scott Grendahls discoveries and work will theoretically make it possible to run combustion engines on clean energy in a fully sustainable way utilizing possible on board under the hood Hydrogen Production Units! Then with currently developed technologies and bespoke H2 production units designed I believe this system and other concepts would be truly viable on a large scale assuming companies such as H2 Planet, or others, could adapt and develop their Hydrogen Gas production unit and storage technologies? Components would need to be adapted to suit differing vehicle types. Across the industries applicable to possible present and or future applications of the concepts and or systems, but I believe the sky really is now the limit!
John Evans 22 / 05 / 2020
APLICATION POSSIBILITIES & FUTURE FOR THE CONCEPTS TECHNOLOGY
1 Automotive Industry - (Current) Including Classic Cars - My dream would be a prototype converted Audi TT Classic....
2 Aero motive Industry - Replacing aviation fuel for both Propeller driven planes and jet engines (Future applications) See https://new.siemens.com/global/en/company/stories/energy/hydrogen-capable-gas- turbine.html for similarities between Hydrogen gas turbines in production and jet engines.... which are basically turbines also in essence so possibilities perhaps in the future?
3 Military - Allowing for reuse and preservation of the existing vehicular infrastructure without the need for refueling supply lines assuming availability of H20 i.e. Conversion of Jeeps, Land rovers, Humvees, etc.... Even possibly Tanks if technology could be adapted for diesel engines.
4 Military and Civilian Combustion driven Back up Generators (on Site / In the Field) 5 Shipping Industry (Large Scale engine capacity)
John Evans 22 / 05 / 2020
Flow Diagram Sustainable (zero emissions) Retrofit Hydrogen gas conversion kit for combustion engines.
Compressor 12 / 24 volt 700 Bar
Gas conversion jets (Mapped)
Hydrogen Gas Production Unit (Nanogalvanic Hydrolysis)
Hydrogen Gas Tank
Hydrogen based Combustion Engine ‘Oaktec – Pulse R engine’
Normal 12 / 24 V Vehicle Electrics
Further research to detailed proposal on hydrogen retrofit hydrogen combustion engines (Document 1)
‘Why Don't We Just Run Internal Combustion Engines on Hydrogen?’ ‘The hydrogen fuel cell alternative’ – ‘Full Sustainability’
However this Video does not take into account future technologies of nanogalvanic Alloy Hydrolysis Hydrogen Gas Production...
So further to the first document regarding retrofitting combustion engines with hydrogen gas conversion kits it seems there is a problem in that the emissions created include Nitrogen oxides, see links above. This is not to say that a combustion engine couldn’t theoretically run on hydrogen just that the Nitrogen oxide emissions would defeat the point of environmental pollution zero emissions aims. Although technology does exist to significantly reduce these small amounts of NOx gases through techniques such as Exhaust Gas recirculation which it is claimed can reduce these emissions to 1 part per Million.
‘One of the most important advantages of hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines is that hydrogen engines emit, by far, much fewer pollutants than comparable gasoline engines. Basically, the only products of hydrogen combustion in air are water vapor and very small amounts of nitrogen oxides. Hydrogen has a wide flammability range in air (5-75% vol) and therefore high excess air can be utilized more effectively. The formation of nitrogen oxides in hydrogen/air combustion can be minimized with excess air. NOx emissions can also be lowered by cooling the combustion environment using techniques such as water injection, exhaust gas recirculation, or using liquid hydrogen. The emissions of NOx in hydrogen engines are typically one order of magnitude smaller than emissions from comparable gasoline engines. Small amounts of unburned hydrocarbons, CO2, and CO have been detected in hydrogen engines due to lubrication oil (Norbeck et al. 1996).’
So the alternative would be that of the Toyota Mirai range hydrogen hybrid electric cars. See https://www.toyota.co.uk/world-of-toyota/environment/fuel-cell-vehicle
These cars use the hydrogen fuel cell technology to split ions in the hydrogen gas to create electricity to drive the internal drive train electric motors more efficiently than a hydrogen converted / designed combustion engine. (The Hydrogen Fuel Cell was Invented by Welsh Physicist ‘Sir William Robert Grove’ in 1839). The (Proven Technology) Hydrogen Fuel Cell used in the Toyota Mirai Hybrid Hydrogen Electric cars range is based directly on his design. The Hydrogen gas used to run these Hydrogen fuel cell cars, such as the Toyota Mirai is produced, at present, either at an Industrial Electrolysis facility and tankered in to pumps at filling stations or in some cases produced in smaller production units on site at the hydrogen pump / filling station. See http://www.nwhydrogenalliance.co.uk/blog-deploying- hydrogen-as-a-transport-fuel-in-the-north-west-mark-griffin-at-boc/
The car is then fuelled at the station with the compressed hydrogen to power the car. However, wouldn’t a better alternative to this be to produce the hydrogen under the hood of the car? This would have massive benefits in that the only infrastructure needed for the adapted Mirai type (Hybrid) system based Nanogalvanic H2 Production units would be distilled water at the filling station see (Document 1). Also the inclusion of a polypropylene water tank for holding of water would allow for long continuous reaction times within the vehicle. The possible future development of Nanogalvanic alloy hydrogen production units based on Scott Grendahl`s 2017 discoveries and work as outlined above in this paper and future technologies could then be combined with the already proven technology of the Mirai (Hybrid) car range to allow for vehicles to be fully sustainable. Also allowing greatly extended driving ranges!
A dual input facility on the car for refueling at Hydrogen pumps also would be invaluable as a back up to the addition of the under the hood hydrogen production technology in case of tech failures breakdowns and safety.
Yikes, what will happen to all our water?
Yes, if you water split, you destroy water to make hydrogen and oxygen. But when you use hydrogen in a fuel cell it is mixed with air, and you make water all over again. So, it’s a renewable cycle, and we won’t run out of water by water-splitting to feed fuel cells.
Also when you burn hydrogen this reaction also produces water!
Practical applications for this would be for example:
Military – Where full sustainability wouldn’t require fuel supply lines to be in place in the field. Also allowing for theoretically unlimited range. For future Manufacture.
See https://www.arl.army.mil/business/intellectual-property/alnanogalvanicpowder/ for further research.
Jet engine combustion
Future technologies (Distant) Further to (document 2) Siemens group is fully committed to running its gas turbines on Hydrogen by 2030 being 100% functional by then and currently running at around 20%. As Gas turbines are basically a similar design to jet turbines / engines one would think it possible to run these jets on hydrogen in the distant technological future...
In Conclusion (A Happy Ending)
In conclusion after further research it transpires that in 2017 the Scientist Scott Grendahl has discovered a breakthrough in clean energy production using hydrolysis of Nanogalvanic aluminium alloys which now opens the doors wide open for the future long term implementation of affordable recyclable and simple to use clean energy production of Hydrogen for the future long term benefit of humanity and the planet. Also with the breakthroughs in prototype developments such as the ‘Oaktec Pulse R’ engine technologies combined with the current production status of the Hydrogen fuel cell transportation systems Hydrogen seems to have a real and viable future with humanity and planet earth our one and only home...
This brings to a close this research paper and its findings in a wonderful way with the sure and safe knowledge that all is not lost for the continuation and development of green fully sustainable Hydrogen technology and, possibly, of the much beloved combustion engine throughout the world. This I believe is the happy ending everybody around the world has been hoping and praying for for a long time! Good News to hear indeed!
My Final Thoughts
My last point I will put forward, pertaining to my research, would be only this:
That Technology companies around the world look to technologize the findings of Scott Grendahl work at (ARL) Maryland to include the development of technologies for onboard Hydrogen Production Units. This I believe would bring the entire automotive side of the hydrogen research debate and technological advancement to conclusion in a beautiful way to enable humanity to move forward now in vast leaps and bounds in a fully sustainable manner and with the ability to look forward to the reality however distant, of Hydrogen driven technologies not only across the automotive industries but into the future (By 2030) with Siemens Hydrogen powered gas turbine, renewable based Hydrogen Gas Electricity Power Stations utilizing Hydrogen gas production on an industrial scale as with the company ThyssenKrupp’s Industrial Water Electrolysis Technology
Although again this company is using Electrolysis rather than Nano Galvanic Hydrolisis Hydrogen Gas Production So in the future these technologies (Hydrolysis) could prove vastly more efficient and cost effective.
And with possible coastal integration in arid sub continental areas utilizing solar or reverse osmosis desalinization plants in conjunction with Hydrogen gas turbine technologies to provide future power requirements and developments for possible third world developing countries.
FINAL NOTE I would look to the future of the aviation industries jet and combustion driven aero planes with the introduction of possible retrofitting of the combustion driven prop driven planes and more incredible and exciting following on from Siemens Hydrogen Gas Turbines 100% capability by 2020 the distinct distant future possibilities of Hydrogen fuel based Jet engine capabilities even to the point of inclusion of on board Hydrogen production units similar to those outlined in this paper? See http://sustainableskies.org/category/hybrid- aircraft/ for future technologies
All in all, the mind boggles at the distinct current and future developments and advancements of these technologies ushering in humanity into a beautiful new dawn of Hydrogen power where we all will hopefully be at one with nature and the planet once again in the not too distant future!
And that as far as I can see is the end of the road for my research and thinking... God Bless the planet, friends, family, love, life and Humanity I believe we are all now being reborn into the new age of Hydrogen!!
John Evans 01/07/2020
Liquid hydrogen based Rocketry
Hydrogen fuel cell aircraft
On Demand Nanogalvanic hydrogen gas production
Hydrogen Gas (Liquid) and Rocketry - NASA
Hydrogen Domestic Appliances – Replacing Natural Gas